Thematic funding can be achieved for virtually any purpose, including technologies designed to improve social well-being through means other than improving productivity, for example. B by responding to “social needs”. The main limitation of this draft directive is to indicate the content of the programme. A very broad definition requires less expertise to draft the invitation to proposals or “calls” and greater expertise to evaluate the proposals received. One way to deal with this problem is to have the proposals for peer review for peer review, in the hope that a peer review committee with sufficient expertise can be found. Stricter definitions of topics not only require more expertise to define them, but they can also filter out truly new innovative approaches by “overspecifying” the type of proposals to expect. While thematic funding is a dominant conception for supply-side actions, several other more specialised conceptions have been or are being applied, including signalling strategies, protectionist strategies and measures to influence the financing of investment in innovation. Free trade allows the unrestricted import and export of goods and services between two or more countries. Trade agreements are concluded to reduce or eliminate customs duties on imports or quotas on exports. These help the participating countries to act competitively. While free trade offers overall benefits, the removal of a barrier to trade for a particular good harms the shareholders and employees of the domestic industry that produces that good. Some of the groups affected by foreign competition have sufficient political power to obtain protection against imports.
Therefore, despite their considerable economic costs, barriers to trade remain. According to the United States International Trade Commission, for example, the United States The benefit of the lifting of trade restrictions on textiles and clothing would have been nearly twelve billion dollars in 2002 alone. This is a net economic gain after deduction of losses for businesses and employees in domestic industry. Nevertheless, domestic textile producers managed to convince Congress to maintain strict import restrictions. A sure prognosis is that international trade agreements will continue to be controversial.